Perimeter security encompasses a number of different technologies. Some installations use active infrared, photoelectric or other types of beam detectors, sometimes in combination with passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors.
In this article, SDM profiles perimeter security installations by six security dealers and systems integrators who have solved the unique challenges posed by each location.
Terrorist Threat Inspires Security UpgradesAfter a terrorist threat on a propane gas facility in California was discovered before its implementation, a sophisticated microwave detection system was installed along with a fence detection system as part of a complete security upgrade.
â€œWe are the largest above-ground refrigerated propane storage facility west of the Mississippi,â€ asserts Pat Hicks, facilities manager at Suburban Propane, Elk Grove, Calif., which is approximately 16 miles south of Sacramento, Californiaâ€™s capital. â€œThis facility stores approximately 24 million gallons of propane, and all we are is a storage facility. The product comes in in the summer and goes out in the winter.â€
In an incident that received national coverage, two U.S. citizens were arrested in late 1999 and convicted in 2002 of attempting to cause an explosion at Suburban Propaneâ€™s facility with a fertilizer bomb to fan Y2K mass hysteria and overthrow the U.S. government. The FBI alerted Suburban Propane to the plot before it was executed.
When the facility originally opened, the area around it was pasture, but now Elk Grove is the fastest growing city in the United States, Hicks maintains.
â€œDevelopment is on our fence line, and we need to be on the cutting edge of security and fire protection,â€ he insists. The goal is to achieve the security standards of a federal prison.
Physical barriers include a chain-link fence, on which an electronic fence protection system is installed, and a cable barrier designed to stop vehicles.
He and Bob Williams from the engineering department of the systemâ€™s manufacturer, Magal-Senstar Inc. (formerly Perimeter Products), Fremont, Calif., determined that a cathodic protection system to inhibit deterioration and rusting of the pipes and tanks that was unrelated to the security system was causing the problem.
Cathodic systems reduce rust by sending 40 volts of direct current electricity into the ground. That, plus improper installation of the security systemâ€™s interconnecting cable, was causing noise in the fence detection system that led to communication problems.
â€œIn outdoor electronic security systems, their ground often is shared with the low-voltage power supply,â€ Bartley explains. â€œYou never want to have two different voltage sources bucking each other because it causes strange electronic things to happen. When this was originally installed, nobody even considered this.â€
The solution was to isolate the electronic circuit boards of the fence system from the noise with nylon washers and screws and install a new interconnect cable.
â€œThe transponder cards work on the same data loop, so it was a matter of splitting the system in half and then going around the perimeter and attaching new microwaves to the existing interconnect cable,â€ Bartley explains.
Instead of mounting the microwave system on steel posts, which usually is done, because of the cathodic protection system, they were electrically isolated on PVC posts. Because vibration could set off the alarm, the posts were stiffened by installing rebar and pouring cement into the middle of them.
Microwave detectors used for this application are point-to-point or bi-static, Bartley notes. Their signals hit flat ground and hover across it until they reach the receiver. A person crawling through the system would cause a disturbance that the system would detect and initiate an alarm.
Because of this, the railroad entrance at one end of the facility posed a challenge. â€œThe railroad tracks stick up kind of tall and that blocks your multipath, so if microwave travels across ground and has something in the way that blocks it, a low-profile person might be able to beat it,â€ Bartley relates. â€œMicrowaves need a relatively level area between transmitter and receiver.â€
â€œThe whole name of the game in outdoor security is you want to keep nuisance alarms to a minimum, or people have no trust in the system,â€ Bartley points out. â€œWhen you use dual technologies, you have two different things that have to happen. You have to have a physical disturbance on the fence, in the microwave zone or body heat to go into alarm for the stereo Doppler microwaves.
â€œThatâ€™s the thing with outdoor security,â€ he concedes. â€œThere are so many tricks with this business, it takes many years to figure this out. Iâ€™ve specialized in this since the early 1980s. When I first got in, hardly anybody was in it. Most security companies know very little about outdoor security. Iâ€™m often called in to put out fires.
â€œThere are so many things with environmental conditions,â€ Bartley declares. â€œWith outdoor security, everything has to be weathertight, you have to use certain types of wire, youâ€™re dealing with wind, rain, storms â€“ there are a lot of factors to consider. A lot of companies get in trouble and take these jobs on and donâ€™t know what theyâ€™re doing. I see it all the time.â€
Sidebar: On the Job
- MX5040 â€“ Head in multiplexer from Magal-Senstar Inc.
- PsyconTouchscreen graphic display, Magal-Senstar Inc.
- FPS2-2M â€“ advanced Edapt processing, Magal-Senstar Inc.
- MPS4100 â€“ bi-static microwaves, Magal-Senstar Inc.: www.magalsenstarinc.com
- Doppler microwaves â€“ both passive infrared and stereo microwave, Protech
- Outdoor perimeter alert system: www.protechusa.com
Tripped Beams Turn on Live Audio/Video System at Central StationAn automobile lot with buildings and three other auto facilities are being protected with a dual-technology volumetric beam system that is integrated with audio/video and is monitored 24 hours a day, seven days a week by a central station.
â€œIf somebody trips the perimeter beams, we get an annunciation called priority 7,â€ explains Hugh Tidwell, vice president of operations for SummitWatch Inc., Los Angeles. â€œWe will get four pictures â€“ three still and one live â€“ of the intruder, and we are immediately talking to them.â€
How the intrusion is handled depends on the time of day, Tidwell reveals. The lot at Crestview Cadillac, West Covina, Calif., is monitored from 6 p.m. to 10 a.m. daily. â€œAt 7 a.m., it might be a guy looking for a car on the way to work,â€ Tidwell concedes.
An announcement is made by the operator, such as, â€œGood morning. Feel free to look. Your actions are being recorded onsite,â€ Tidwell recites. â€œAt 2 a.m., they are not looking at cars. We say, â€˜This is security. Leave the lot immediately,â€™ and we call the police.â€
The dealershipsâ€™ buildings also are monitored with indoor cameras, Tidwell notes. â€œA lot of our clients have eliminated their burglary and fire alarms because weâ€™re watching the facility,â€ he reports. â€œWe never recommend that, but some of them choose to make the savings.â€
The motion detectors at the perimeter of the parking lots use infrared and microwave technology, Tidwell explains. â€œThere is no way to go over it or under it,â€ he maintains. â€œThese are volumetric â€“ they have no pattern. They flood the area.
â€œThey donâ€™t create an X or grid or anything you can penetrate,â€ he insists. â€œIt is a solid curtain from ground level to 13 feet high. You can set it for the sensitivity to take out birds or cats. We put the beams on the existing light poles on the car lots and cable to the poles.â€
The company uses a unique cable installation method. â€œA lot of companies tear up the asphalt and trench,â€ Tidwell asserts. â€œOne really unique thing we do is a four-inch grind cut in the asphalt with a diamond-blade slab saw, similar to ones you see on the freeway.
â€œWe lay cable in that and recaulk it so the disruption to the business is minimal,â€ he notes. â€œWe might have to move a few cars, and then we caulk it and power wash, and you never know we were there.â€
Sometimes if the light poles are not positioned properly for the perimeter beams, SummitWatch installs its own 20-foot posts to hold the beams.
When an intrusion is detected by the beams, day/night pan-tilt-zoom dome cameras zoom in on the intruder and DVRs record the event. The system was installed at the beginning of this year at several facilities that are all under the same ownership, including Crestview Cadillac, another Cadillac dealership, a used car lot, and a remote storage lot.
Sidebar: On the Job
- Model 457 and 467 perimeter beams, ASIM, Billerica, Mass.: www.asim-technologies.com
- Spectra III day/night PTZ video cameras, Pelco, Clovis, Calif.: www.pelco.com
- AdPro DVR, Vision Systems, Norwell, Mass.: www.vsl.com
- Public address amplifiers, Bogen Communications Inc., Ramsey, N.J.: www.bogen.com
Video Analytics System Is Employed for a Portâ€™s Perimeter SecurityVideo analytics software is used in conjunction with an extensive network of fixed and pan-tilt-zoom surveillance cameras to provide perimeter protection at the Port of Wilmington, Del. The port, one of the busiest on the East Coast, handles more than 400 vessels annually and up to 5 million tons of cargo.
â€œThe port is roughly 300 acres,â€ describes Eric Schaeffer, owner and president of Advantech Inc., Dover, Del., the projectâ€™s integrator. â€œOn its eastern side is the Delaware River and on its northern edge is the Christina River, which meets the Delaware at the northeast point of the port.â€
The port has docking facilities for large vessels. â€œThe maximum Iâ€™ve seen is three large freight-type ships along the main docking facility,â€ Schaeffer notes. â€œThen thereâ€™s usually one vehicle-containing ship on the autoberth. These are very large ships holding several thousand vehicles.â€
The main entrance is on Terminal Avenue just off I-95. â€œThatâ€™s the main entry and exit point for all cargo haulers,â€ Schaeffer explains. The port also is served by a railroad spur with controlled access.
â€œThen there are two other vehicle entrances that are typically used for certain types of cargo like heavy materials and also large quantities of vehicles being moved through to the storage lots,â€ he continues. â€œAll entrances including the railroad entrance are controlled through security management and gate operators.â€
On the design end, the manufacturer and video analytics software company were highly involved and on-site. Schaeffer also credits Jim Seningen, a fiber-optic engineer, and Mick Soyka, an electrical engineer, with PEI electrical contractors.
â€œEvery site is unique and has different situations that need to be addressed, so itâ€™s not like itâ€™s a cookie-cutter approach,â€ Schaeffer declares. â€œThere is a lot of work on site as far as calibrating the cameras and getting the right field-of-view and setting up the processors.â€
The managers of the Port of Wilmington, the Diamond State Port Corp., requested statements of qualifications to secure the entire perimeter of the port using grant money provided by the Office for Domestic Preparedness (ODP).
Advantech went through an extensive proposal process to obtain the project at the port, where they had secured the main entrance shortly after 9-11. The short list of integrator candidates was evaluated through an interview and presentation process. Advantech and its team scored the most points, thereby winning the project.
The company also had to submit conceptual designs that were fleshed out as soon as they won the project. â€œIt was the entire team,â€ Schaeffer notes. â€œIt wasnâ€™t us sitting down and designing a solution. It was a true design/build. We had the objectives of what they wanted accomplished, which was a lot, with that round of grant money. We put more into it than we originally thought the budget could support.
â€œWhat took a fair amount of time was setting up the perimeter fields-of-view for the video analytics,â€ Schaeffer reports. â€œYou cover your entire perimeter with fixed-position cameras, and then for interrogation purposes, PTZ cameras are spaced incrementally around the property.â€
An alarm from the video analytics software that uses a fixed-position camera will notify the appropriate PTZ camera to track the target, Schaeffer notes. A single interface is used to track activities throughout the facility.
â€œSo if you get an alarm from a fixed-position camera, it will position the associated PTZ to track the target,â€ he explains. â€œActivities and alarm conditions are displayed on the wide-area surveillance screen which also allows operators to manually call up cameras and control PTZs.
â€œIdeally, the operatorâ€™s primary function is to acknowledge and react to alarm events,â€ Schaeffer points out. â€œSo if itâ€™s a land-based event or a water-based event, itâ€™s going to highlight the target and display the associated fixed-camera view and use interrogation PTZ to track that target.â€
A fiber-optic network was installed throughout the port for communication with the field components. Primary and emergency power needed to be distributed to power these components. â€œThat took a lot of the design end,â€ Schaeffer notes.
â€œA lot of these ports are on old reclaimed pieces of land,â€ he points out. â€œOur team had to be careful. We had to trench a fair amount and used underground radar to make sure we werenâ€™t going to hit something we didnâ€™t want to hit.â€
Sidebar: On the Job
- Pro-Watch Corporate Edition (CE), Honeywell Security, Syosset, N.Y.
- Honeywell Fusion and Rapid Eye DVR management software
- Honeywell Fusion DVRs with 4 TB of additional storage
- Honeywell Rapid Eye DVRs for video verification
- Honeywell HD6 ruggedized day/night PTZs: www.honeywell.com
- VistaScape video analytics software and hardware
- MagnaView camera systems
- Dinion Series high-performance, low-light cameras, Bosch Security Systems: www.boschsecurity.us
- Fiber-optic video/data and Ethernet transceivers, IFS, Newtown, Conn.: www.ifs.com
- Servers, processors, switches and KVM, HP, Palo Alto, Calif.: www.hp.com
- Barrier arm operators, DKS DoorKing Inc., Inglewood, Calif.: www.doorking.com
- Hydraulic barrier arm operators, HySecurity, Kent, Wash.: www.hy-security.com
- Speed Space 6-foot by 8-foot security control booths
Photo Beams Powered by Solar Towers Make for a Smooth Installation at Wastewater PlantWireless solar-powered towers with infrared photoelectric beams secure a wastewater treatment plant in Florida without requiring piping, trenching or extensive labor for installation of power or communication lines. They also are less prone to damage from lightning strikes.
The plant in Homestead, Fla., is one of several city facilities using the wireless towers. The high-low dual infrared photoelectric beams operate off of batteries inside the tower that are recharged by the solar panels.
When the beams are broken, the towers transmit a radio frequency (RF) signal into a control board that has each area or beam zone identified, explains Matthew Forristall, owner of Aressco Services Inc., Miami, an authorized dealer of the towers and a licensed alarm contractor. The wireless signal can be transmitted up to five miles, and use of a repeater can extend the transmission distance.
â€œThere are two relay outputs, and one goes into the master control and voice annunciation panel and one into their computer monitoring network system for the plant,â€ Forristall relates. â€œThe control panel monitors the zones and alerts the security guard to view the area via video camera from a remote site.â€
The video cameras record the alarm and a DVR archives it. The incident is recovered by date and time in an event log that records the beam alarms.
Forristall estimates the facilityâ€™s size at approximately 10 acres, which is covered by 10 towers. â€œThe towers jog back and forth,â€ he says. â€œThe distance varies. At this facility, we have to turn corners â€“ itâ€™s not perfectly square. Some beams go 30 to 40 feet and then some up to 700 feet.â€
Each job has its towers custom-designed, depending on the distances they have to project their beams and whether they are corner units or going straight along a perimeter. â€œWhen the job is laid out, each tower is designed to go into that typical location,â€ Forristall notes.
The beam towers are mounted on 250-pound concrete cement pedestals. â€œThe installation went really smoothly,â€ Forristall maintains. â€œWe just dug a hole, put the cement pedestal in the hole and attached the beam to it.â€
The towers withstood Hurricanes Katrina and Wilma recently, he reports, although the storms were only Category 1 or 2 when they passed over Florida.
The beams and video system are always on, even during power outages, but the voice annunciation system can be turned off or bypassed when maintenance is being done around a particular zoneâ€™s beams. Installation of the security system at the wastewater treatment plant was completed in November 2005.
Bob Houston, CEO, Solarbeam Security LLC, developed the wireless solar towers over the years he and Forristall were in a security company together. Their customersâ€™ wired perimeter security systems around nurseries and auto lots were plagued by lightning strikes from Floridaâ€™s frequent afternoon thunderstorms.
â€œSo over time, Bob developed the solar-powered beam to limit lightning damage and make installation easier, so you didnâ€™t need a month to dig up the property,â€ Forristall recalls. â€œEach tower is isolated, so if it does get hit, itâ€™s just one device, not five units.â€
The beam towers were developed painstakingly over years of trial and error in real applications, some of them with the city of Homestead, where Solarbeam also is located, Forristall remembers. Solarbeam Security LLC, is now a sole-source vendor for the city. The solar towers are used throughout the United States and even in Oregon, where direct sunlight is less frequent, Houston notes.
â€œOver the years, weâ€™ve done installations around Homestead facilities with earlier generations of beams,â€ Forristall notes. â€œThe city was already familiar with the product, and since weâ€™re right there in Homestead, it was fairly easy for them to come to us, because they knew we had a product and they had the need.â€
Sidebar: On the Job
- Solar wireless towers manufactured by Solarbeam Security LLC, Homestead, Fla.
- Master control panel, Solarbeam Security LLC
- Multi-zone wireless receiver transmitter, Solarbeam Security LLC: www.solarbeam.com
- High-low dual infrared photoelectric beams, Optex America, Chino, Calif.: www.optexamerica.com
- Vista control panel, Honeywell Security, Syosset, N.Y.: www.honeywell.com
- Video surveillance cameras, Panasonic Security Systems, Secaucus, N.J., and Samsung Optical America Inc., Secaucus, N.J.: www.panasonic.com/security
- DVRs, Dedicated Micros, Chantilly, Va.: www.dedicatedmicrosus.com
Dual Motion Sensors Activate the Video System at Water PlantEner-Tel Services Inc., San Angelo, Texas, secured its clientâ€™s water treatment plants using dual PIR sensors and Doppler microwave detection, with pan-tilt-zoom video cameras and DVRs.
Operators in the plantsâ€™ control rooms are on guard 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to examine any video footage that is captured by the triggering of the dual-technology sensors. The two technologies help eliminate many false alarms, points out Jon Allen Richardson, regional sales manager for Ener-Tel Services.
â€œWithout the dual detection, you would end up getting a lot of false alarms,â€ Richardson concedes. â€œWith dual detection, once it sees both the PIR and Doppler, it automatically goes into alarm, and that reduces the amount of false alarms tremendously.â€
The motion detectors were installed by Ener-Tel Services as part of the perimeter security systems at some water treatment facilities in Texas, which are unidentified for security reasons. Mark Perez, manager of technical support and sales for Protech, helped substantially with the application of their sensors to specific sites, Richardson notes.
â€œOn the water treatment plants, some of the problems youâ€™re running into are that they are fairly large areas, and then buildings are scattered throughout that are in the way,â€ Richardson explains. â€œThere are quite a few blind spots.â€
In some areas, up to six dual-technology motion detectors are used and their outputs connected to the inputs on the pan-tilt-zoom cameras. On a square building that has two cameras on opposite corners, the motion detectors can direct the cameras to follow the person all around the building, Richardson notes. The cameras are connected to DVRs that keep a record of any intrusions.
Special coatings were applied to the electronic circuit boards in the sensors by the manufacturer, at Ener-Telâ€™s request, to protect them from some of the corrosive environments in water treatment plants, such as high concentrations of chlorine, Richardson notes.
Cabling that works by magnetic induction also was used on the fence surrounding such facilities. â€œIt looks like a piece of coaxial cable,â€ Richardson explains. â€œIt can tell if something is near, if someone is cutting the fence or climbing on it or clipping the wires.â€
The wire also can be placed around a gate and sense if it is being tampered with, he points out. The pan-tilt-zoom cameras can be alerted to any intrusion attempts.
Wireless transmission at 2.4 GHz is used in some facilities along with a wireless Ethernet backbone. Recently, the company has begun installing fiber-optic cable.
â€œWith wireless, youâ€™ve always got the element of something going down, but with fiber optics, unless your lines are cut, you can depend on it,â€ Richardson asserts.
â€œYou can almost eliminate lightning surges completely,â€ he notes, because fiber optic cable is glass. It also does not require an antenna as wireless does, which also can be a target of lightning.
â€œIf you end up with buried copper, even if there isnâ€™t lightning in the area, you always have the potential of a ground difference between the buildings,â€ he points out. â€œIf one building is grounded better than the other, it can pull current through your buildings. So we try fiber between buildings so you have no path for the current to travel at all.â€
â€œWeâ€™ve done a little bit of everything,â€ Richardson declares about his companyâ€™s outdoor security projects. â€œThe meat and potatoes is the exterior motion sensors. Those are really what make it happen for you.â€
Sidebar: On the Job
- Piramid XL2, Protech, Reno, Nev.: www.protechusa.com
- Spectra III day/night PTZ video cameras, Pelco, Clovis, Calif.: www.pelco.com
- Intelleflex cabling, Senstar-Stellar, Carp, Ontario, Canada: www.senstarstellar.com
- DVXI DVR, Integral Technologies Inc., Indianapolis: www.integraltech.com
- 2.4 GHz wireless transmitters and receivers
- Wireless Ethernet backbone from Wi-LAN, Calgary, Alberta, Canada: www.wi-lan.com
- Fiber-optic transmitter, Internet Security Systems (ISS), Atlanta: www.iss.net
Quad Beam Sets Are Custom Installed to Boost Reliability at Power PlantA power plant is being protected with a system installed by Geo-Tech Security Inc., Pittsburg, Calif., which combines active infrared beams with video surveillance equipment.
The perimeter of the plant is protected with three quad beam sets within each tower wired in series. â€œAn alarm occurs if any one set is tripped,â€ relates George Iaconis, Geo-Tech Securityâ€™s owner. â€œAll four beams have to be broken within one set in order to cause an alarm.â€
With this type of system, a bird flying low or a fox running through the beams would not cause an alarm. The towers are 6.5 feet high and the beams cross horizontally and diagonally to create a rectangle and an X pattern between them. â€œWe have a very low frequency of false alarms,â€ Iaconis maintains. â€œThe beams are extremely reliable.â€
To improve their efficiency in fog, the active infrared beams are spaced 300 feet apart instead of the maximum 600 feet. This reduces the number of foggy days on which the beams do not operate by 90 percent, Iaconis calculates.
â€œSo the system can be totally controlled from a remote site including cameras,â€ he relates. â€œWe set the system up so it can be on 24 hours a day. When the front gate opens, it automatically shunts the beam that goes across the driveway.â€
The ADI Systems Group, Orange, Calif., designed the system for Geo-Tech, Iaconis tells. â€œWhen I took the project to them, they designed it and said this is what they recommended,â€ he remembers. â€œThey were a pretty big help in putting the project together parts-wise.â€
Installation of the plantâ€™s perimeter security system was completed in 2003. Its exact location in California cannot be disclosed for security reasons.
â€œWe have a maintenance contract where we go to the site every three months to make sure the beams are aligned properly, and the siren still goes off, and do any general maintenance that needs to be done to the system,â€ Iaconis says. â€œWe have several plants throughout the state that we take care of for them.â€
Sidebar: On the Job
- PBIN 200HF photoelectric beams, Takex America Inc., Sunnyvale, Calif.: www.takex.com
- AL600 Series power supplies, Altronix: www.altronix.com
- BT 200 6.5-foot tall towers, Takex America: www.www.takex.com
- Rapid Eye PTZ dome video cameras, Honeywell, Syosset, N.Y.
- Rapid Eye DVR, Honeywell
- Northern Computers control panel running WINPAK 2.0 software: www.honeywell.com